Should I Laugh or Cry? Exploring the Impact of the fourth (‘inferior’) function with Andrew Mountford

Laugh or cry drama masks reflecting the inferior function

August 17 @ 1:30 pm 4:30 pm AEST

Should I Laugh or Cry? Exploring the Impact of the fourth (‘inferior’) mental function as expressed in an individual’s personality (psychological) type.

Carl Jung observed that an orderly progression emerges for most people in relation to four mental functions based on Perception and Judgement. Isabel Myers developed the MBTI® to implement Jung’s theory of type.

Perception is about ‘all the ways of becoming aware – things, people events or ideas. It involves information gathering, seeking sensation or inspiration – selecting which stimulus to pay attention to.’

Judgement means ‘all the ways of coming to conclusions about what has been perceived. It includes evaluation, choice, analysis and the selection of a response after receiving the stimulus.’

Mary McCaulley, who worked intimately with Isabel Myers, noted that the purpose of the MBTI® was to make the theory of psychological types by C.G. Jung understandable and useful in people’s lives.

The theory goes that individual type development occurs in different ways for different types – but the stages of development follow a typical path. The first or ‘dominant’ preference emerges in childhood (6-12 years). The second or ‘auxiliary’ function appears in adolescence (13-20 years). The third or ‘tertiary’ function appears in early adulthood (20-35 years). The least developed or ‘inferior’ function makes its presence known in mid-life (35-50 years). And after that? Come to the session on 17 August to reflect and discuss. The session title offers a clue…

When we include the use of these functions in the extraverted and introverted ‘world’ we arrive at eight possible preference choices.

Roger Pearman reminds us to keep in mind that the goal is not to equally use all eight functions but to at least recognise their contribution to our lives. Equal use would not be desirable. This would be like eight voices talking at you at the same time and at the same volume. He suggests that ‘chaos of self’ would certainly result.

Andrew Mountford

About Andrew Mountford

Andrew Mountford served as Secretary and President of AusAPT between 2013 and 2022. He has recently retired from work outside the home after a consulting career spanning 40 years. He has worked as a trainer, coach and facilitator in Australia and internationally. Clients ranged from community groups to large corporates – in Australia and Europe. In 2020, as the Covid 19 pandemic arrived in Victoria, Andrew and his partner Liz moved down from Melbourne to live in the beautiful coastal town of Portarlington on the Bellarine Peninsula.

Free Free for members & guests but please bring a plate or bottle to share

RSVP to Meredith by email as below or email

AusAPT Victoria

View Organiser Website

The Epicentre, Caulfield North

Caulfield North, Victoria Australia

Type in Tokyo, 2024: Encounters through the lens of type

April 2 @ 6:00 pm April 4 @ 5:00 pm Japan/Tokyo

A cross-cultural and cross-generational experience

AusAPT and TypeLAB, Japan are excited to be co-hosting an International Type Conference in Tokyo, Japan, 2-4 April, 2024.

TypeLAB is a mother’s community centred around growth and self-awareness headed up by AusAPT Management Committee member and MBTI Master Practitioner, Harumi Gondo

We are honoured to work in partnership with Harumi and TypeLab in Japan for this event and grateful to Harumi for her initiative in creating this innovative opportunity to grow type learning and knowledge together.

When and where:

The conference starts at 6pm Tuesday 2 April, then two full days 3-4 April including dinner on 2 & 3 April, concluding at 5pm on 4 April.

We have timed the conference with Cherry Blossom season so that you can enjoy Tokyo in all its special beauty at this time.

Location: Tokyo, Edogawa area – nearest stations are Kasai, Funabori or Nishikasai Recommended hotels are included below.

To register for the conference, head to:

Conference focus, program and presenter

Conference Focus: Cross-cultural and cross-generational type

  • Experience Tokyo with the local TypeLAB type community
  • Explore type and Tokyo together.
  • Look at type in different cultural contexts 
  • Explore type across generations: Gen Z, Millennials/Gen Y, Gen X, Baby Boomers
  • Experience everyday Japanese activities together through the lens of type
  • Find out the latest in EEG and neuroscience developments.

There will be a mix of presentations alongside experience-based activities exploring Tokyo and type together and connection over meals. Sessions will be in either Japanese or English with translation provided.

You can view the full program in English and Japanese here:

Our keynote presenter is internationally renowned neuroscence and type presenter, Dario Nardi. Dario Nardi, Ph.D. focuses on neuroscience, personality, and body-mind practices and recently published two new books, Decode Your Personality: Go Beyond Myers-Briggs with 64 Brain-Based Subtypes and Teaching Tales for the 16 Personality Types.

Dario Nardi
Dario Nardi

International presenters also joining us are: Harumi Gondo (Japan), Sue Blair (NZ/UK), and Jane Kise and Ann Holm (US).

Here is a snapshot of topics we will cover:

  • Cultural differences around conformity and roles
  • Stages of community development through a type lens 
  • Practical demonstration of EEG and neuroscience applications
  • Judging, perceiving, culture and education
  • Exploring shopping and central Tokyo experiences through a type lens 
  • Exploring Tokyo through local people who know the area.

Why attend?

  • Explore cross-cultural and cross-generational dimensions of type
  • Visit Japan, experience Japanese culture through the lens of type in partnership and with the support of the local TypeLAB community.
  • Connect and learn in person with other international type practitioners and from international type leaders – Dario Nardi, Harumi Gondo, Sue Blair, Jane Kise and Ann Czajka Holm.
  • Connect with the type community in the broader Asia Pacific region, across cultures and generations.

Conference pricing

YEN12000 Price for all participants – or approx $125AU

This approximately 84USD, 66GBP and 76EURO.

This covers:

  • Conference venue and presenters
  • Welcome reception including coffee and snacks
  • Bento (lunch box) for Day 3
  • Local maps and program booklet

All other meals will be paid for by participants directly as part of the conference proceedings and costs are very reasonable.

Register for the conference here:

AusAPT Conference Team

View Organiser Website

In partnership with TypeLAB, Japan :

If you have any questions, please email

ホテルリスト】Hotel List

○船堀 Funabori area

会場(タワーホール)のエリアです。ホテルは1軒だけです。Area is around Funabori Tower Hall.

・くれたけイン東京船堀 Kuretake Inn Tokyo Funabori

約7,000円(1泊),駅2分,タワーホール3分(徒歩) around 7000 yen/night, 2 minutes by foot from Funabori Station, 3 minutes by foot from Tower Hall

○西葛西 Nishikasai area

ホテルが多いです。Mostly hotels

・ホテルルミエール Hotel Lumiere

約7,000円(1泊),駅5分,タワーホール9分(TAXI) around 7000 yen/night, 5 minutes by foot from Nishikasai Station, 9 minutes by taxi from Tower Hall

・ホテルマンデー東京西葛西 Hotel Monday

約15,000円,駅2分,タワーホール9分(TAXI) around 15,000 yen/night, 2 minutes from Nishikasai Station, 9 minutes by taxi from Tower Hall

○葛西 Kasai area

空港行きリムジンバスが停まります。Narita and Haneda Airport limousine buses comes to Kasai Station.

・ホテルルミエール葛西 Hotel Lumiere Kasai

約15,000円,駅5分,タワーホール12分(TAXI) around 15,000 yen/night, 5 minutes by foot from Kasai Station, 12 minutes by taxi from Tower Hallいwp3F1mcEZ4Y9rm7E8

・ホテルイルフィオーレ Hotel Il Fiore Kasai

約20,000円,駅5分,タワーホール12分(TAXI) around 20,000 yen/night, 5 minutes by foot from Kasai Station, 12 minutes by taxi from Tower Hall


Opening Evening 2 April: Funabori Community Hall:

Conference 3-4 April: Funabori Tower Hall

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Conference Round-up: ‘From Shadows to Showtime’, 1-2 September, 2023, Brisbane

It was fabulous to gather in person at Rydges Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, for the 2023 AusAPT Conference. After a few years of online conferences, it was refreshing and energising to connect in person again. It was especially exciting to have type friends join us from overseas (US, UK, Japan, New Zealand) and across Australia. In particular, meeting AusAPT Committee Member, Harumi Gondo from Tokyo in person for the first time was a special highlight. AusAPT Management Committee members, Meredith Fuller and Harumi Gondo Pre-conference workshop We kicked off on Thursday evening with a joint pre-conference networking and workshop on Type (more…)

Mapping the Shadow: A Type-Based Approach to Shadow Work – Max Chegwyn

October 24, 2023 @ 7:30 pm 9:00 pm Australia/Sydney

Discover how to integrate the shadow using Type and the Seven Habits of Individuation model. In this presentation we will explore the common ways in which Type maps to Persona-Shadow dynamics and the different practices each Type can use for integration and psychospiritual growth.

Jungian Shadow Work is increasingly being used as a coaching tool. More people are recognising the benefits of integrating deeper aspects of themselves to bring balance to their lives, careers, and relationships. However, the shadow is not something that can be easily captured in a concept or identified independently.

In this presentation, we will discuss how Type can be used as a foundation for mapping and integrating the shadow. We will examine the most common ways Type correlates with Persona-Shadow dynamics and how this serves as a valuable tool for identifying shadow material. Finally, we will explore how different classifications of shadow material can be integrated using the Seven Habits of Individuation model.

About Max Chegwyn

Max Chegwyn is a psychospiritual educator and coach dedicated to helping freedom-minded individuals develop self-knowledge. As the curator of the Seven Habits of Individuation model, Max focuses on fostering individuation and psychospiritual growth. You can find his regular content and learn more about his work at

Picture of Max Chegwyn, curator of the Seven Habits of Individuation model, a man with a forest green jumper smiling directly at the camera.

How to join the session:

This is an online session and you need to register in advance for the Zoom details. Click the link below to register and joining details will be sent to you:

Check your local time

Free Free for AusAPT members and guests


View Organiser Website

The Epicentre, Caulfield North

Caulfield North, Victoria Australia

AusAPT 2023 Conference: From Shadows to Showtime

September 1, 2023 @ 9:00 am September 2, 2023 @ 3:30 pm Australia/Brisbane

Program and Presenters

The Australian Association for Psychological Type Inc is pleased to be returning to in-person conferencing this year.

Our 2023 conference, in subtropical Brisbane, will comprise two days of keynote and concurrent sessions over Friday and Saturday, 1–2 September.

Our conference program spans a diverse range of sessions from Australian and international presenters, with new faces alongside familiar names from across the wide world of psychological type. As our keynote speakers we’re honoured to present psychologist and author Dr Angelina Bennet from the UK and the world-renowned Australian type luminary Mary McGuiness.

The conference theme, From Shadows to Showtime, reflects our emergence from the shadows of pandemic back into the spotlight on stage. ‘Shadows’ also commemorates the centenary of publication, in English translation, of CG Jung’s Psychological Types, with Jungian topics featuring in our program. And ‘Showtime’ also acknowledges our conference venue in the midst of Brisbane’s historic showgrounds.

Download a PDF of the program summary above here:

Download a PDF of the detailed session and presenter details here:

Whether you’re a professional user of psychological type or an interested observer of personality types, our program has something for you. Booking are now open, so come and join us for Spring in the Sunshine State.


Registrations are open for AusAPT’s 2023 Conference, From Shadows to Showtime. Your registration covers the two days of conference sessions, including lunches on both days, and the conference dinner on Friday, 1 September.

For members of AusAPT and our partner associations (APTi, BAPT, AFTP, ILP), Early Bird registration costs just AUD 480. (That’s around USD 325, GBP 260, EUR 300 on current exchange rates.)

When registering for the conference you can sign up for, or renew, AusAPT membership to secure your member discount. (Pay $75 membership, save $80 on registration.) Conference discounts are also available for retirees and full-time students.

For non-members, registration costs AUD 560.

$400 – $560 Become an AusAPT member and save.

Click on the blue button below to register for the conference and purchase your 2023/4 AusAPT membership in one step as a bundle and save. You can also let us know you are a current financial member of another APT or ILP and save.

Or you can book as a non-member. Plus you can add on the conference dinner for people coming with you but not attending the conference.

Please make sure you are logged in on our website if you have already registered/created an account with us. If not, you will be directed to register with us first to create an account before you book your place for the conference. This only needs to be done once but ensures your details are kept safe and secure and we can provide a customised service for you.

You can also just purchase the conference or become a member or renew your membership also from the form available via the above button.

Any questions or issues, please contact us via email at


Our 2023 Conference venue is Rydges Fortitude Valley, a 4.5 star hotel on the edge of downtown Brisbane that previously hosted our 2018 Conference.

Rydges is sited in the historic Showgrounds precinct (reflecting our ‘Showtime’ theme), 20 minutes from Brisbane Airport, an easy walk from Fortitude Valley rail station, and close to bus routes to the city and suburbs.

Rydges’ Paddock Bar is a convivial space for casual conversations with fellow delegates. And just outside the door is King Street with many cafes, bars and restaurants.

Rydges is offering Superior King rooms, plus buffet breakfast for one, at the special conference price of AUD 229 per night (that’s around USD 155, GBP 123). You can book your room via the link below:

$400 – $560 Become an AusAPT member and save.

AusAPT Conference Team

View Organiser Website

The Epicentre, Caulfield North

Caulfield North, Victoria Australia

Personality Instruments: what to select and how they can assist

April 13, 2023 @ 6:30 pm 9:30 pm AEST

Adam Le Good & Rod Winning present Personality instruments, what to select and how they can assist in a practical, useful, fun evening with two top trainers, includes video.

While the focus will be on consultants, Human Resources & Organisational Development & Training and Development professionals who are most likely to be organising these interventions, the session will have applicability for anyone who is curious about what various instruments do and do not do, and how to select according to group needs. Adam and Rod will also provide information about the way that results and familiarity with the instrument’s results may lead to problem solving, coaching, counselling, and training with groups and organisations.

Adam and Rod have a series of videos in production entitled ‘Personality and Behaviour’ explaining that instruments are either essentially personality or behaviour identifiers, behaviour being an outcome of personality and context. The video series will be useful to a wide range of practitioners, students, HR & OD & consultants.

The first episode has been completed.  It is a broad level overview which compares the following instruments – MBTI, Herrmann, TMS, Belbin, Enneagram, DISC Advanced. It is not rating them, more looking for areas where they are best suited or perhaps not suited for.  They have interviewed practitioners from peak bodies in each of these styles. 

About the presenters

Adam Le Good

Adam Le Good has been working in Learning and Development for over 30 years and has been the director of Fundamental Training and Development since 1995. He designs and delivers management and personal development programs for a wide variety of clients throughout Australia and New Zealand.

Specialising in Leadership, Customer Service, Team Building, Project Management and many more, he often incorporates Behavioural and Personality instruments into his programs and is accredited to use MBTI, MBTI Step II, HBDI, DISC Advanced, Team Management Systems, the Belbin Team Roles and CCS Cards

With a degree in Psychology and a Certificate IV in Training and Assessment, he uses his knowledge of human behaviour, practical applications of management principles and theory and a humorous and theatrical style to ensure participants enjoy their learning experience and are able to translate their newly acquired skills to their life and work.

He has been a member of AusAPT since 2019 and has recently taken on the role of General Manager of the Institute for Learning and Performance’s Academy where he oversees the introduction of the Certificate IV in Learning Design and Facilitation and is writing a module for this qualification entitled ‘Apply Psychometric Profiling Tools to Learning.’

For more information go to or connect with him on LinkedIn:

Rod Winning

Rod’s QUALS and BIO can be viewed on he is certified in NeuroLeadership and a qualified counsellor/coach as well as a film maker with decades of experience. He has an extensive background in training and has been a management development specialist for companies like Honda. His most recent film HOME TRUTHS produced with Lesley Coleman is about family violence. This film has won 9 international awards, and was made as a community service to be distributed free to individuals and organisations; go to to view and download. In addition to filming, editing, and co-producing Rod has also been involved in creating the accompanying e-books with Meredith Fuller (short and long versions).

Free Free for AusAPT members and guests

AusAPT Victoria

View Organiser Website

The Epicentre, Caulfield North

Caulfield North, Victoria Australia

Type and Exploring Personal Growth Pathways – Alex MacFarlane

personal growth

November 6, 2020 @ 1:30 pm 2:30 pm Australia/Sydney

Research regarding optimal human personal development has identified specific steps regarding this form of growth process experienced in one way or another by all humans. In an opposite vein, the research regarding the human deficiencies and dysfunctions we want to overcome indicates these crippling factors are individualised, not experienced by all, and are dependent on nature (our inborn cognitive preferences) and our nurture. This session will broadly outline dysfunctions typical for each psychological type and the overarching steps involved in optimal growth. It will then set about, by group discussion, to explore our individual lived experiences in this process.

Alex MacFarlane
Alex MacFarlane

Alex MacFarlane  
Alex MacFarlane is a clinical and consultant psychologist specialised in the application of psychological type and temperament as a core therapeutic tool in clinical practice and consulting. Her work has involved private practice, teaching, training, research and consulting. Her ongoing PhD studies the relationship of psychological type and pathways to optimal functioning.   

This session is part of the AusAPT Online 2020 Conference. It’s just $75AU for AusAPT members and reciprocal members and $100AU for guests for all 12 sessions. Or you can purchase a new member + conference package at $125AU.

You can find the full conference program and details here:

$75 – $125 Full conference price for all 12 sessions including this session!


View Organiser Website

The Epicentre, Caulfield North

Caulfield North, Victoria Australia

Feature imag photo by Jenna Hamra from Pexels

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Media Puzzle: Responding to Claims about the MBTI® and Psychological Type – Peter Geyer

AusAPT Type Research and Practice Collection Occasional Papers (#1 – February 2020) A response to False Portraits by Jennifer V Fayard Psychology Today January 2020 Peter Geyer Werribee, Australia This article is also available as a pdf download here: Media-PuzzleDownload To see what is in front of one’s nose needs a constant struggle  George Orwell  [Campbell 2011 p187] There’s something about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI) and the notion of types of people that provokes a consistent stream of criticism, whether it be about the questionnaire itself, or the ideas attached to it. Sometimes this prompts defences from various interested parties, (more…)