Should I Laugh or Cry? Exploring the Impact of the fourth (‘inferior’) function with Andrew Mountford

Laugh or cry drama masks reflecting the inferior function

March 14 @ 6:30 pm 9:00 pm AEDT

Because of illness, we are postponing this event and will soon announce a new date.

Should I Laugh or Cry? Exploring the Impact of the fourth (‘inferior’) mental function as expressed in an individual’s personality (psychological) type.

Carl Jung observed that an orderly progression emerges for most people in relation to four mental functions based on Perception and Judgement. Isabel Myers developed the MBTI® to implement Jung’s theory of type.

Perception is about ‘all the ways of becoming aware – things, people events or ideas. It involves information gathering, seeking sensation or inspiration – selecting which stimulus to pay attention to.’

Judgement means ‘all the ways of coming to conclusions about what has been perceived. It includes evaluation, choice, analysis and the selection of a response after receiving the stimulus.’

Mary McCaulley, who worked intimately with Isabel Myers, noted that the purpose of the MBTI® was to make the theory of psychological types by C.G. Jung understandable and useful in people’s lives.

The theory goes that individual type development occurs in different ways for different types – but the stages of development follow a typical path. The first or ‘dominant’ preference emerges in childhood (6-12 years). The second or ‘auxiliary’ function appears in adolescence (13-20 years). The third or ‘tertiary’ function appears in early adulthood (20-35 years). The least developed or ‘inferior’ function makes its presence known in mid-life (35-50 years). And after that? Come to the session on 14th March to reflect and discuss. The session title offers a clue…

When we include the use of these functions in the extraverted and introverted ‘world’ we arrive at eight possible preference choices.

Roger Pearman reminds us to keep in mind that the goal is not to equally use all eight functions but to at least recognise their contribution to our lives. Equal use would not be desirable. This would be like eight voices talking at you at the same time and at the same volume. He suggests that ‘chaos of self’ would certainly result.

Andrew Mountford

About Andrew Mountford

Andrew Mountford served as Secretary and President of AusAPT between 2013 and 2022. He has recently retired from work outside the home after a consulting career spanning 40 years. He has worked as a trainer, coach and facilitator in Australia and internationally. Clients ranged from community groups to large corporates – in Australia and Europe. In 2020, as the Covid 19 pandemic arrived in Victoria, Andrew and his partner Liz moved down from Melbourne to live in the beautiful coastal town of Portarlington on the Bellarine Peninsula.

Free Free for members & guests but please bring a plate or bottle to share

RSVP to Meredith by email as below or email

AusAPT Victoria

View Organiser Website

The Epicentre, Caulfield North

Caulfield North, Victoria Australia

Victorian AusAPT End of Year Function

December 7, 2023 @ 6:30 pm 10:00 pm AEDT

Join us for an end of year gathering in Melbourne. There will be a mystery guest and an opportunity to catch up with AusAPT friends and celebrate.

Bring:    A plate or bottle to share

Please RSVP by contacting Meredith Fuller by email

Free Free for members and guests.

AusAPT Victoria

The Epicentre, Caulfield North

Caulfield North, Victoria Australia

Type and Music Preferences with Ian Ball

November 25, 2023 @ 1:45 pm 4:30 pm AEDT

An AusAPT in person event in Melbourne, Victoria

There are many reasons why particular pieces of music attract us and why we go back to those preferences. There are also reasons why particular styles of music are ones we avoid or find unbearable.

In 2006 Elwin Hall and I conducted a workshop at the AusAPT conference exploring these ideas and looked for linkages between one’s preferred type and one’s preferences for music.

This new session reviews the research conducted since then and serves as an update on this theme. The new evidence gives much more confidence about the relationships. There has been a reconceptualisation about music preferences and this will be explained in the session.

It is hoped that participants will have a greater appreciation of the linkages between type and preferences for music with particular attributes. You may be delighted with some live singing!

Ian Ball

Ian Ball

Ian is a retired Associate Professor from Deakin University. His specialisations were Psychology and Education. He is a Life Member of AusAPT and also a Fellow of the Australian Psychological Society.

This was a session at the online Time & Tide—Traditions and Trends in Type conference in 2022.

Free Free for AusAPT members and guests

RSVP by contacting Meredith Fuller –

Entry:  bring a plate or drink to share. Join us at 1:45pm for a 2pm start.

AusAPT Victoria

View Organiser Website

The Epicentre, Caulfield North

Caulfield North, Victoria Australia

Depth Typology – Exploring Beebe’s ideas with Ian Ball

November 27, 2021 @ 2:00 pm 4:00 pm AEDT


The workshop draws on Mark Hunziker’s book Depth Typology. We will look at the way the eight archetypes affect how the eight function-attitudes are expressed within an individual psyche. We will do some exercises about the sixteen types that illustrate why we sometimes feel drawn to or have potential conflict issues with people of differing type preferences. We will explore the ideas about the significance of one’s shadow type and one’s opposite type.

About Ian Ball:

Ian is a Life Member of AusAPT and managed the Psychological Type Research Unit for 22 years. He has published research on type in both Australian and International journals and at conferences. A major project was the creation of a model of the distribution of types in the Australian working population using census data. He is a retired Associate Professor from Deakin University, and is a Fellow of the Australian Psychological Society.

Ian Ball
Ian Ball

This is an in person event in Melbourne.

To book for the event:

Contact AusAPT at or Meredith Fuller directly.

Free Free for Members

$10 payable on the day for non-members.

Posted on

2019 Conference Resources LIVE + 50% off Membership opportunity for 2019/20

conference resourcesGo deeper with type through the rich video and presentation resources created by our 2019 Conference presenters. Our 2019 AusAPT Conference in Melbourne in late November was an opportunity to go deeper into psychological type and connect with a friendly community of type practitioners, researchers and writers. It was a great success – enriching, informative and enjoyable. The presenter resources – videos of presentations, presentation notes and handouts – from the Conference are now LIVE on the AusAPT website for the information of conference participants and current AusAPT members. Our sincere thanks to the presenters for generously sharing their learning and these resources. (more…)